The potential biomedical benefits of consuming stabilized amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) as preferred source for calcium supplement were inspired by discovering the mode of generating and utilizing stabilized ACC in nature. This revolutionary concept was initiated after Amorphical’s founder, Yossi Ben, was amazed to discover that a cultivated freshwater crayfish, named Cherax Quadricarinatus, can rapidly rebuild its complete external skeleton in an unprecedented pace of 72 hours after its periodical molting.
The article reveals the nature of storing stabilized ACC nanospheres in 2 gastrolith pockets, mounted at the stomach walls of the cherax. These unique pockets are formed and filled with ACC only one week before its molting. Then, the ACC is rapidly deployed to form its new exoskeleton within 3 days. GAP 65, a 65-kDa protein, was found to be responsible for the main stabilization of the typically very unstable ACC nanospheres within the gastrolith, preventing them from crystallization and subsequent crystal growth and deposition. GAP 65 is also involved in the extracellular matrix formation and mineral deposition during the biomineralization of the exoskeletal structure. GAP-65 is characterized in this article as well as its morphological interactions with the ACC in the gastrolith.
Another important discovery reported in this article, is the capability of the cleaned GAP 65 to stabilize the formation of a synthetic ACC, which is formed in-vitro in the presence of the protein. This critical finding inspired and led to the first approach for synthesizing cost-effective ACC at commercial scale.